a   28757

« earlier    

Argentinian Liga A Finals San Lorenzo vs San Martin Game 6 Spread and Prediction
In Game 6 of the Argentinian Basketball league (otherwise known as Liga Nacional de Básquet or simply Liga A) Finals, the second-seeded San Martin (29-9), who are with their backs against the wall and need to win this game in order to force a game 7, are hosting the first-seeded San Lorenzo (30-8), who have […]

The post Argentinian Liga A Finals San Lorenzo vs San Martin Game 6 Spread and Prediction appeared first on WagerTalk News .
European  Basketball  NBA  Picks  Predictions  and  Odds  argentinian  liga  a  finals  San  Lorenzo  vs  Martin  Game  6  Spread  Prediction  free 
13 hours ago by WagerTalk
Sports Betting 101: How to Place at Bet at a Sportsbook
In the latest of episode of our “Sports Betting How To” series for the recreational sports bettor from the WagerTalk TV Studios in Las Vegas host Kelly Stewart talks with sports betting expert Teddy Covers and break down how to go up to the counter and place a wager at a sportsbook (and not look […]

The post Sports Betting 101: How to Place at Bet at a Sportsbook appeared first on WagerTalk News .
Sports  Betting  Tips  how  to  bet  on  place  a  wager 
21 hours ago by WagerTalk
The Journey of Actinium-225: How Scientists Discovered a New Way to Produce a Rare Medical Radioisotope | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)
Nuclear class 132
The Journey of Actinium-225: How Scientists Discovered a New Way to Produce a Rare Medical Radioisotope
Although research into promising cancer treatments using actinium-225 started with a rare and limited source, DOE scientists have found a new way to dramatically increase its supply.
Inside a narrow glass tube sits a substance that can harm or cure, depending on how you use it. It gives off a faint blue glow, a sign of its radioactivity. While the energy and subatomic particles it emits can damage human cells, they can also kill some of our most stubborn cancers. This substance is actinium-225.
Fortunately, scientists have figured out how to harness actinium-225's power for good. They can attach it to molecules that can home in on only cancer cells. In clinical trials treating late-stage prostate cancer patients, actinium-225 wiped out the cancer in three treatments.
"There is no residual impact of the prostate cancer. It's remarkable,” said Kevin John, a researcher at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Actinium-225 and treatments derived from it have also been used in early trials for leukemia, melanoma, and glioma.
But something stood in the way of expanding this treatment.
For decades, one place in the world has produced the majority of actinium-225: DOE's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Even with two other international facilities contributing smaller amounts, all three combined can only create enough actinium-225 to treat fewer than 100 patients annually. That's not enough to run anything but the most preliminary of clinical trials.
To fulfill its mission of producing isotopes that are in short supply, the DOE Office of Science's Isotope Program is leading efforts to find new ways to produce actinium-225. Through the DOE Isotope Program's Tri-Lab Research Effort to Provide Accelerator-Produced 225Ac for Radiotherapy project, ORNL, LANL, and DOE's Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) have developed a new, extremely promising process for producing this isotope.
Building on an Atomic Age Legacy
Producing isotopes for medical and other research is nothing new for DOE. The Isotope Program's origins date back to 1946, as part of President Truman's effort to develop peaceful applications of atomic energy. Since then, the Atomic Energy Commission (DOE's predecessor) and DOE have been manufacturing isotopes for research and industrial uses. The unique challenges that come with isotope production make DOE well-suited for this task.
Isotopes are different forms of the standard atomic elements. While all forms of an element have the same number of protons, isotopes vary in their number of neutrons. Some isotopes are stable, but most are not. Unstable isotopes are constantly decaying, emitting subatomic particles as radioactivity. As they release particles, isotopes change into different isotopes or even different elements. The complexity of producing and handling these radioactive isotopes requires expertise and specialty equipment.
The DOE Isotope Program focuses on manufacturing and distributing isotopes that are in short supply and high demand, maintaining the infrastructure to do so, and conducting research to produce isotopes. It manufactures isotopes that private companies are not making commercially available.
An Exceptional Cancer Fighter
Producing actinium-225 brings the national laboratories' expertise into a new realm.
Actinium-225 has such promise because it's an alpha emitter. Alpha emitters discharge alpha particles, which are two protons and two neutrons bound together. As alpha particles leave an atom, they deposit energy along their short path. This energy is so high that it can break bonds in DNA. This damage can destroy cancer cells' ability to repair and multiply, even killing off tumors.
"Alpha emitters can work in cases where nothing else works,” said Ekaterina (Kate) Dadachova, a researcher at University of Saskatchewan College of Pharmacy and Nutrition who tested the actinium-225 produced by DOE.
However, without a way to target cancer cells, alpha emitters would be just as harmful to healthy cells. Scientists attach alpha emitters to a protein or antibody that exactly matches the receptors on cancer cells, like fitting a lock into a key. As a result, the alpha emitter only accumulates on the cancer cells, where it emits its destructive particles over a very short distance.
"If the molecule is designed correctly and goes to the target itself, you kill only the cells that are around the targeted cell. You do not kill the cells that are healthy,” said Saed Mirzadeh, an ORNL researcher who began the initial effort to produce actinium-225 at ORNL.
Actinium-225 is unique among alpha emitters because it only has a 10-day half-life. (An isotope's half-life is the amount of time it takes to decay to half of its original amount.) In fewer than two weeks, half of its atoms have turned into different isotopes. Neither too long nor too short, 10 days is just right for some cancer treatments. The relatively short half-life limits how much it accumulates in people's bodies. At the same time, it gives doctors enough time to prepare, administer, and wait for the drug to reach the cancer cells in patients' bodies before it acts.
Repurposing Isotopes for Medicine
While it took decades for medical researchers to figure out the chemistry of targeting cancer with actinium-225, the supply itself now holds research back. In 2013, the federal Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the first drug based on alpha emitters. If the FDA approves multiple drugs based on actinium-225 and its daughter isotope, bismuth-213, demand for actinium-225 could rise to more than 50,000 millicuries (mCi, a unit of measurement for radioactive isotopes) a year. The current process can only create two to four percent of that amount annually.
"Having a short supply means that much less science gets done,” said David Scheinberg, a Sloan Kettering Institute researcher who is also an inventor of technology related to the use of actinium-225. (This technology has been licensed by the Sloan Kettering Institute at the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center to Actinium Pharmaceuticals, for which Scheinberg is a consultant.)
Part of this scarcity is because actinium is remarkably rare. Actinium-225 does not occur naturally at all.
Scientists only know about actinium-225's exceptional properties because of a quirk of history. In the 1960s, scientists at the DOE's Hanford Site produced uranium-233 as a fuel for nuclear weapons and reactors. They shipped some of the uranium-233 production targets to ORNL for processing. Those targets also contained thorium-229, which decays into actinium-225. In 1994, a team from ORNL led by Mirzadeh started extracting thorium-229 from the target material. They eventually established a thorium "cow,” from which they could regularly "milk” actinium-225. In August 1997, they made their first shipment of actinium-225 to the National Cancer Institute.
Currently, scientists at ORNL "milk” the thorium-229 cow six to eight times a year. They use a technique that separates out ions based on their charges. Unfortunately, the small amount of thorium-229 limits how much actinium-225 scientists can produce.
Accelerating Actinium-225 Research
Ultimately, the Tri-Lab project team needed to look beyond ORNL's radioactive cow to produce more of this luminous substance.
"The route that looked the most promising was using high-energy accelerators to irradiate natural thorium,” said Cathy Cutler, the director of BNL's medical isotope research and production program.
Only a few accelerators in the country create high enough energy proton beams to generate actinium-225. BNL's Linear Accelerator and LANL's Neutron Science Center are two of them. While both mainly focus on other nuclear research, they create plenty of excess protons for producing isotopes.
The new actinium-225 production process starts with a target made of thorium that's the size of a hockey puck. Scientists place the target in the path of their beam, which shoots protons at about 40 percent the speed of light. As the protons from the beam hit thorium nuclei, they raise the energy of the protons and neutrons in the nuclei. The protons and neutrons that gain enough kinetic energy escape the thorium atom. In addition, some of the excited nuclei split in half. The process of expelling protons and neutrons as well as splitting transforms the thorium atoms into hundreds of different isotopes – of which actinium-225 is one.
After 10 days of proton bombardment, scientists remove the target. They let the target rest so that the short-lived radioisotopes can decay, reducing radioactivity. They then remove it from its initial packaging, analyze it, and repackage it for shipping.
Then it's off to ORNL. Scientists there receive the targets in special containers and transfer them to a "hot cell” that allows them to work with highly radioactive materials. They separate actinium-225 from the other materials using a similar technique to the one they use to produce "milk” from their thorium cow. They determine which isotopes are in the final product by measuring the isotopes' radioactivity and masses.
Trials and Tribulations
Figuring out this new process was far from easy.
First, the team had to ensure the target would hold up under the barrage of protons. The beams are so strong they can melt thorium – which has a melting point above 3,000 degrees F. Scientists also wanted to make it as easy as possible to separate the actinium-225 from the target later on.
"There's a lot of work that goes into designing that target. It's really not a simple task at all,” said Cutler.
Next, the Tri-Lab team needed to set the beamlines to the right parameters. The amount of energy in the beam determines which isotopes it produces. By modeling the process and then conducting trial-and-error tests, they determined settings that would produce as much actinium-225 as possible.
But only time and testing could … [more]
Shannon  Brescher  Shea  is  a  senior  writer/editor  in  the  Office  of  Science_  shannon.shea@science.doe.gov. 
yesterday by kbren
coHounder | Find your perfect co-founder!
I upvoted coHounder on Product Hunt: A list of businesses looking for a co-founder https://ift.tt/2yB6qQy
ProductHunt  Hiring  and  Recruiting  Tech  A  list  of  businesses  looking  for  co-founder 
yesterday by glitchwitch

« earlier    

related tags

$100  $100m  $188  $1m  $250m  $2b  $50m  $77.163  $79.092  $79.448  $8.4m  &  (or  (via  *and*  -  0.5%  1.2-litre  10  128gb  1980s  1st  2.  2.5%  2  2015  2017.  2018  2018_  23  3.7%  3  4  4460  4500mah  5.3%.  5  50  6  60000  7-year-old  a2  about  accessories  accessory  according  accounts  actiontec  ad  address  addresses  adds  ads  advertising.  advertising  affairs  amid  an...  an  analytics  and  android  any  anything  app...  app  apple  appreciate  apps  ar-15  are  argentinian  as  aspire  assignments  assistant...  assistant  at...  at  audio  auto  automatic  away  b  bajaj  bank  banking  banks  bar  based  basketball  battery  be  beautiful  been  before  benefits  best  bet  better  betting  between  big  billion  billion_  bird  blackberry  bmw  bookmark  bought  break  brescher  bridging  bring  browser  brush  build  bureau  burned  business  businesses  but  buyer  buys  by  c  calendar  call  called  calm  campaign  cannon  capture  car  car:  carries  ce  center  certain  challenges  characteristics  checking  choice  choosing  close  co-founder  co-founders  cold  come  coming  companies  company.  company  company_  compare  comparison  complains  complaints  complete  complimen  confirms  consider  console  consumers.  consumers  contact  content  continue  continues  conversation  cool  correlation  corrupt  cover  create  credit-unions  creditunions  crm  current  dallas  david  day  days  deaf  deals  delivery  dentist  depend  design  detroit  developer  diet  difference  digital  direct-to-consumer  director  diversify  do  domain  domainname  donation_  donors_  down  driving  dtc  dublin  editorial  educating  email  employees  engine  entirely  equity  essential  european  even  excited  expected  expects  experimenting  expert  explosion  facebook  facelift  fan  features  few  fic  figure  file  final...  final  finals  financial  finch  find  finish  fios  firstminute  five:  flag  flooded  follow  food  fool-proof  for  ford  forecast  format  formula  found  framing  frauds.  free...  free.  free  french  from  fund  funded  furniture  future  galaxy  game  gdp  get  gets...  gets  getting  github  goldberg  good  google  grid  group  groupm.  groupm  growth  guide  hackers...  hackers  hands-on:  harold  harriet  has  have  head  headphone  health  hellofresh's  hellofresh  hellofresh_  her  hidden  high-quality  hiring  history  hit  hits  hitting  house  how  howto  huge  humble  i  ice  if  ifttt  igtv  illustrated  in  independent  index  instagram  install  instead  institution  insulating  interest  interviews  into  iphone  ireland  is  it's  it  italian  its  jack  james  jane.ai  jm  join...  join  jrmc  june-  just  keep  keepsafe  key  key2  keyboard  korea  lag  land  largest  launch  launched  launches  lawsuits  le  leak  leaked  led  lega  lg  liga  like  likely  linkedin.  linkedin  links  list  lnb  local  logo  look  looking  lorenzo  love  luminaire  m&a  mac  make  makes  making  mans  many  mark...  mark  markdown  marketing  marks  martin  may  me  media  media_  meditation  medium  melrick  menu  mi  microsoft  might  milan  milano.  milano  mindfulness  misses  miui  mobile  model  monaco  money  myth?  name  naming  nat  national  nba  needs  new  newbie  next  no  nominal  not  note  numbers_  odds  of...  of  off  off_  office  old  olimpia  on  one  online  only  open  opportunity.  or  order  other  others  our  out  outlook  outside  overall  packed  paint  pan-european  partners  patched  patreon.  pattern  pay  paying  pdf  pediatric  perfect  person  petrol  phone  physical  picks  pinterest  pipedrive  place  place_  plaza_  please  plex  podcast  police)  post  powell  practice  prayer  prediction  predictions  prisma  privacy-focused  pro  produce  producthunt  production  productivity...  productivity  products  professional  profit  programming  pst  purchasing  pydata  python  quiet  radio  raise  raises  razer  read  rec  receptionist  recruiting  redmi  registered  releasing  report  reportedly  revenue.  review.  reviews  rise  road?  router  rs  sales.  sales  salesforce  sameen  samsung  san  sarah  say  scams  scene  science_  scooter  sealing  search  secret  see  seed  sees  sell  senior  seo?  seo  service  service_  shannon.shea@science.doe.gov.  shannon  share  shaw  shea  shooting  short  simple  since  small  smartphone  so  social  software  some  soon  sounds  source  south  speaksee  speed  spending  sports  spots  spread  spreadsheet  square  standardized  stands  start  startup  still  strategy  stuck?  study  subscribers  subscription_  sunrise  support  supporting  surfaces  sushi  sushifork  tag  take  task  tech  techcrunch  tech’s  telenovela  tesla  that  the  their  this  through  tips  to...  to  today  tool  tools  top-tier  total  track  trademarks  traditional  traffic  transform  trento  truth  trying  tulsa  tumblr  tv  u.s.  unlimited  unreasonably  up  usb-c  usb  use  valuation  ventures’  verizon  video  virtual  virtualreceptionist  vs  vulnerability  wager  walkthrough  want  wants  warrior’s  watch  way  we  web-tool  web  webb  webb_  website  wellness  what  when  whole  why  will  wilton  wire  wired  with  woman  wordpress  work.  work_  working  works  wouldn't  writer/editor  x5  xbox  xiaomi  yanked  year's  years  you  your  youtube  |  ©      📊 

Copy this bookmark: